BA Syllabus

SCHOOL OF CHINESE

The School of Chinese offers courses in Chinese language, literature, history, and culture as well as translation which appeal to those with a particular interest in the study of Chinese and the literary and cultural interaction with the modern world. Courses are normally taught in Chinese. Students following these courses will develop a great language and analytical ability combined with a breadth of knowledge of and cultural and literary approaches in Chinese studies.

In addition, the School contributes to the teaching of the double degree programme of the BA&BEd (LangEd)-Chin and offers courses to foreign students (refer to Courses for Foreign Students).

Four majors and minors are offered in which students are required to take a pre-requisite course in the specified programme below.  In addition, they should also take a certain number of introductory courses in the first two years and advanced courses in subsequent years.

Students can choose to major or minor in the following programmes:

(i)Chinese Language and Literature
(ii)Chinese History and Culture
(iii)Chinese Studies
(iv)Translation

The course components for the major and the minor except for Translation are as follows (see separate entry under Translation for its course components):

Major (72 credits)

  • Pre-requisite course: (6 credits)
  • Introductory courses: (18 credits)
  • Advanced courses: (42 credits)
  • Capstone experience course (6 credits): This is a graduation requirement applicable to majors which can be fulfilled by taking a course listed under “Capstone experience courses”. It is designed to allow students to advance their analytical thinking by permitting the application of disciplinary knowledge and principles learned in their earlier years of studies.

Minor (36 credits)

  • Pre-requisite course: (6 credits)
  • Introductory courses: (12 credits)
  • Advanced courses: (18 credits)
  • No Capstone experience course is required

Not all the courses listed below will be offered every year.  Students should refer to the course handbook for a list of courses on offer each year.

CHINESE LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE

Prerequisite courses

CHIN1101. A Survey of the Chinese language (6 credits)

This course introduces students to the various aspects of the Chinese language, including etymology, phonology, lexicology, and grammar, with special reference to the cultural context and its developments in the twentieth century.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN1105. History of Chinese literature: a general survey (6 credits)

This course is a study of the general characteristics and the development of Chinese literature from the pre-Qin period to the nineteenth century.  This course attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine the changes of Chinese literature.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Introductory courses

CHIN1101. A Survey of the Chinese language (6 credits)

This course introduces students to the various aspects of the Chinese language, including etymology, phonology, lexicology, and grammar, with special reference to the cultural context and its developments in the twentieth century.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN1102. Introduction to standard works in classical Chinese literature (6 credits)

This is a fundamental study of standard works and selected writings from the classical Chinese literature. Representative works and writings in various literary forms such as poetry, prose, and fiction are introduced. The themes and contents of the selected works and writings as well as the writing characteristics and styles of the writers are further elaborated and discussed.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1103. Introduction to standard works in modern Chinese literature (6 credits)

The historical development of modern and contemporary Chinese literature is comprehensively introduced. The standard works and selected texts of represented writers such as Lu Xun, Wu Shi, Zhang Ailing, Bai Xianyong etc. will be studied and appreciated through different perspectives.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN1105. History of Chinese literature: a general survey (6 credits)

This course is a study of the general characteristics and the development of Chinese literature from the pre-Qin period to the nineteenth century.  This course attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine the changes of Chinese literature.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1106. Poetry and the couplet: composition and appreciation (6 credits)

The purpose of this course is to explore classical Chinese poetry and poetic culture, from early times to the present, through the study of three different but interrelated genres: regulated verse (shi), lyric poetry (ci), and antithetical couplet (duilian). Besides reading and discussing the literary merits of some of the most renowned poems and poets, students will also be given training in the rhyming schemes of classical Chinese poetry, and will be encouraged to compose their own original works.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1107. Creative writing (6 credits)

This course aims to foster interest in the great works of modern Chinese literature and to help students develop and sharpen their writing skills.  It examines how writers and readers interact with literary works in general, and considers how meanings and effects are generated in modern poems, prose, and fiction in particular.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1109. Introduction to Chinese women’s literature (6 credits)

This course explores the historical development of Chinese women’s literature from the Qin-Han period to contemporary China.  The impact of various political, social, intellectual factors as well as the western trends and thoughts on women’s literature are also investigated.  The course provides students with an opportunity to study and appreciate women’s literature in its various forms and styles through the examination of texts written by the most representative and best known women writers.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1114. Contrastive study of Cantonese and Modern Standard Chinese (6 credits)

This course aims to help students gain a sound knowledge of the phonetic, lexical, and syntactic differences and correspondences between Cantonese and Modern Standard Chinese and thus improve their language abilities of spoken and written Chinese.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1115. Study of the Confucian canons and modern society (6 credits)

Confucian canons enjoyed a high status in ancient Chinese society. This course provides students with a fundamental understanding of the classical Confucian canons, and the relationship between canonical studies and modern society. Students are expected to recognize the modern values of the study of the Confucian classics.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2121. Prose up to the nineteenth century (6 credits)

This course acquaints students with important writers and works of the Chinese classical prose from the pre-Qin till the end of the Qing periods.  It emphasizes two areas of learning: First, a general landscape of the development of prose writing including its major theories and trends; and, second, close reading of selected texts, with particular attention to the styles, structures, images, and uses of rhetorical devices.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2123. Shi poetry up to the nineteenth century (6 credits)

This course covers the body of classical shi poetry, its characteristic techniques, and major practitioners from Western Han to late Qing (nineteenth century). Diverse methods will be employed, such as historical, biographical, and hermeneutical criticism. Broad thematic concerns are also presented, including “Gender and identity”, “Humanizing Nature”, and “Creativity versus Imitation”.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2125. Ci poetry up to the nineteenth century (6 credits)

This course provides a general survey of the ci poetry from its beginning in the Tang period to the Qing period, with special emphasis on the Song period, which is considered the golden age in the history of this literary genre.  Students taking this course are expected to gain a sound knowledge of the development of the ci poetry from the eighth century to the nineteenth century.  Its various forms and styles are examined through specimens taken from the most representative as well as best known authors.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2127. Classical Chinese fiction (6 credits)

Based on an overview of the development of Chinese classical fiction from the Wei-Jin period to the late Qing, participants in this course will explore the defining characteristics, forms, and genres of traditional Chinese fictional narrative. Key examples from Tang chuanqi (short tales), Song and Yuan huaben (short stories), and the classical and vernacular fiction of the Ming and Qing dynasties will be studied with the aim of deepening understanding and appreciation of these forms. Attention will also be given to problems of editions, bibliographical and reference resources, as well as recent Chinese and foreign language advances in scholarship.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2152. Literature, modernity and nation in twentieth-century China (6 credits)

This course offers a general introduction for students to the literary history of China from the late Qing and Republican periods, to the current state of Chinese literature. It will be conducted chronologically and organized according to certain themes. After looking at general issues, certain literary thoughts and the works of selected writers will then be examined. Breaking the traditional 1949 division, the students will be introduced to the literature produced in the second half of the twentieth century, and the important scholarship in the field of modern Chinese literature.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

Advanced courses

CHIN2122. Prose: selected writers (6 credits)

Aimed at developing students’ ability to interpret and appreciate traditional Chinese sanwen (free essays), this course will focus on the sanwen of Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan from the Tang dynasty, as well as Su Shi from the Song. In order to strengthen students’ appreciation of the role of this form in the development of Chinese culture and literature we will: 1) discuss and analyze the literary achievements of Han, Liu, and Su and the significance of the judgment that with Han Yu “literary standards were reinstated after eight dynasties of decline” both in terms of Tang-Song writing and the writing of later periods, 2) engage in a systematic reading of their representative sanwen works, 3) consider recent approaches to their place in Chinese literary history.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2124. Shi poetry: selected writers (6 credits)

This course provides a detailed study of the shi poetry of one or two of the following: Cao Zhi, Tao Qian, Xie Lingyun, Wang Wei, Li Bai, Du Fu, Han Yu, Li Shangyin, Su Shi, and Huang Tingjian.  Students taking this course are expected to demonstrate a sound knowledge of the shi poetry covered and a general ability to describe and analyze poetic styles in the examination.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2126. Ci poetry: selected writers (6 credits)

This course provides a detailed study of the ci poetry of one or two of the following: Su Shi, Zhou Bangyan, Xin Qiji, and Jiang Kui – the Four Great Masters of the ci poetry of the Song period.  The course will consider the individual achievements and influences of the poets; their contemporaries will also be discussed.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2130. Modern Chinese literature (1917-1949): fiction (6 credits)

This course is a study of modern Chinese fiction from 1917 to 1949. The historical development of modern Chinese fiction will be introduced and the impacts of western literary trends or thoughts on fiction writers will also be explored. In addition, representative short stories and novels of different schools will be appreciated and studied in depth.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2132. Contemporary Chinese literature (since 1949): fiction (6 credits)

This course is a study of contemporary Chinese fiction in Mainland China since 1949. The historical development of contemporary Chinese fiction will be introduced and the influential factors such as political ideology or economic policy that interfered with the creation of fiction will also be illustrated. In addition, representative fictional works which were published before or after the Cultural Revolution will be deeply discussed.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2136. Classical Chinese literary criticism (6 credits)

This course provides a general survey of classical Chinese literary criticism.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2138. Chinese etymology (6 credits)

This course introduces students to some of the essential features of the Chinese characters, the principles underlying their construction, and the evolution of many of these characters.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2139. Chinese phonology (6 credits)

This course provides a detailed study of Chinese phonology. Topics covered include introduction to general phonetics, history of Chinese phonology, nature of Qieyun (切韻), rhyme books and rhyme tables, and the reconstruction of Middle Chinese. The focus of this course is on Middle Chinese, but phonology of Old Chinese and Old Mandarin will also be introduced. Students are expected to gain a sound knowledge of various methods used in historical phonology and understand the rules governing sound changes from Middle Chinese to Modern Mandarin and Cantonese.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2145. Chinese theatre during the Yuan, Ming, and Qing periods (6 credits)

This course introduces to students the most important times in the development of pre-modern Chinese theatre, namely, the Yuan, Ming, and Qing periods. It surveys the rich theatrical traditions flourishing during these times, including: the Yuan variety plays and Southern plays; the Ming and Qing chuanqi plays; and the Qing regional popular theatre. It also guides students in reading/viewing and interpreting the most well-known scenes from the plays — as both texts and stage performances.

Assessment: 50% coursework, 50% examination.

CHIN2146. The “sickly beauties”: gender and illness in late imperial China (6 credits)

This course looks into a cultural ideal that continued to hold the Chinese imagination across the late imperial times, namely, the “sickly beauty” or the bing meiren 病美人. It introduces students to interdisciplinary approaches to understanding the construction of this ideal in the full contexts of its time – in particular, how the conceptualizations of gender and of illness converged in late imperial China. It aims, in this way, to help students become aware of important cultural mentalities and literary trends that shaped people’s perceptions of gender and of their gendered selves during this time.

A variety of literary and cultural texts from this period, including poetry, fiction, biji writings, theatrical performances, paintings, and medical treatises, will be employed to illustrate the discussion. A comparative perspective – e.g. how discourses of gender and illness converged in Victorian England – will also enrich the discussion when necessary.

Assessment: 50% coursework, 50% examination.

CHIN2147. Reading of classical Chinese texts (6 credits)

This course provides a close study of one or more of the following classical texts: Shijing 詩經, Chuci楚辭, Zuozhuan 左傳, Zhuangzi 莊子, Zhaoming Wenxuan 昭明文選 etc., engaging various techniques of scholarship and criticism.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2148. Modern Chinese grammar and rhetoric (6 credits)

This course offers a comprehensive analysis of modern Chinese, with emphasis on the study of grammar and rhetoric.  Both the theories and principles of application are covered.  It promotes students’ understanding and ability not only in analyzing the grammatical structures but also in applying the rhetorical expressions in the use of Chinese language.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2149. Chinese language from social perspectives (6 credits)

This course focuses on the study of the use of Chinese language from social perspectives, with particular reference to Mainland China and Hong Kong.  The linguistic phenomena, characteristics, and development are examined.  It enables students to understand the relationship between language and society, and the linguistic and social factors affecting the use of Chinese language as a communicative tool in society.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2150. A comprehensive survey of Chinese linguistics (6 credits)

This course aims to provide a comprehensive introduction to the linguistic study of Chinese language. This course focuses on an overview of the key topics like origin and acquisition of language, operation rules of language, language mechanism, distinctiveness of Chinese language, and writing of the Chinese language.

Assessment: 40% coursework, 60% examination.

CHIN2151. Gender and sexuality in Ming and Qing fiction (6 credits)

Sexuality and gender are inevitably bound up with the world of fictional narrative and they thus provide a valuable entry into the interpretation of traditional fiction and its relation to social history. Reading and analysis will focus on selections from six novels from the Ming and Qing and their comparison will form the basis for discussion of six themes related to gender and sexuality in late imperial Chinese society. Students will be required to address three of the themes in three essays each consisting of approximately 2000 Chinese characters and developing an original analysis.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2153. Sinophone literature and film (6 credits)

As a result of Chinese diaspora and increasing global cultural interactions, scholars have proposed various analytical frameworks to remap the current field of Chinese-language literature and film. The concept of “sinophone” is such an attempt which celebrates the diverse expressions of “chineseness” and underscores the local particularities in which each Chinese-language or film is produced. This course offers students an opportunity to study selected sinophone literary works (by writers residing primarily in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the west) and films, and to explore and challenge existing notions of nationalism, cultural identity, and linguistic authenticity.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2154. Taiwan literature from the Japanese colonial period to the 1990s (6 credits)

The first half of the twentieth century was a time of unprecedented upheaval and change in Taiwan; after Japan’s colonial rule, the Nationalist government took over, beginning the period of martial law (1949-1987) as well as a series of re-Sinification projects to enhance its political legitimacy. Following the Nationalist Party’s localization and the lifting of martial law, the society underwent a rapid transformation and literary writing in Taiwan exhibited unprecedented vitality and diversity in the 1980s and 1990s. This course provides an introduction to the literature from Taiwan in the twentieth century. It covers both the Japanese colonial and the post-war periods, with a focus on short stories and novels. The dynamics between politics (particularly the colonial control, the Nationalist government’s policies, and the recent indigenization discourse) and literature through reading a variety of selected texts will be explored.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2155. Topical studies of Sinophone literature (6 credits)

This course will introduce students to some of the most critical issues in the study of Sinophone literature—Sinitic-language or Huayu literature from around the world.   Organized around such topics as conceptions of Chineseness, race and ethnic relations, cultural translation, multilingualism, diaspora and transnationalism, and politics of identity, we will read select Sinophone literary works from Asia (Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore), Europe (France and England), and the United States.  The goal of this class if for students to gain understanding of Sinophone literature while learning about some of the most critical issues in literary studies.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2156. Topical studies of literary theory (6 credits)

This course will introduce students to major issues and debates in literary theory from China to the West.  Topics to be covered include Marxism and literature, postcolonial theory, feminism, modernism versus realism, transnationalism, and world literature.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2157. Topical studies of ethnic minority literature from China (6 credits)

By official count, Chinese population consists of fifty-six ethnic groups, but the study of Chinese literature is dominated by the study of literary texts written by Han writers.  Many minority nationality writers, such as Tibetans, Uyghurs, Mongolians, the Miao, and the Manchu, have all written very important works of literature.  This course will explore some of the major texts of ethnic minority literature from China and consider such issues as bilingualism, ethnicity, otherness, and empire.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2158. Classical Chinese grammar (6 credits)

This course offers a study on the grammar of classical Chinese. In addition to synchronic analysis, this course also attempts to examine grammatical changes from a diachronic perspective. With an extensive understanding of the theories of classical Chinese grammar, students are expected to attain higher level of competence in ancient text reading and gain a solid foundation for further studies in Chinese philology and linguistics.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2159. Chinese documentation (6 credits)

This course provides a comprehensive introduction to Chinese documentation, including formation and forms of Chinese documents, bibliography (mulu xue目錄學), edition studies(banben xue版本學) and textual criticism(jiaokan xue校勘學). It examines the formation, nature, spread and evolution of ancient texts to illustrate the key issues in Chinese documentation. In order to enhance students’ research capability in Chinese studies, this course also emphasizes the relationship of Chinese documentation to other research areas such as philology, literature and ancient thought studies.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2160. Traditional literary relationship between China, Japan and Korea (6 credits)

The course focuses on the study of the literary tradition and its varied representations in China, Japan and Korea since ancient times. Literary tradition is a collection of works with an underlying interconnectedness and coherence and the term literature, when applied broadly, includes art and culture. It is important to know the differences and similarities of East Asian literatures and to enhance the understanding of a country’s uniqueness on the basis of a common East Asian society.  The course consists of a series of public lectures, for undergraduate and postgraduate students, offered by scholars from different disciplines providing them comprehensive and cross disciplinary approaches in the studies of the literary tradition in East Asia.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2162. Cantonese linguistics (6 credits)

This course provides students with a fundamental understanding of the phonological, morphological and syntactic structures of Cantonese. The linguistic differences between Cantonese and Modern Standard Chinese will be examined. Students are expected to utilize relevant reference books and materials for further independent study.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN3401. Dissertation (12 credits)

The purpose of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to conduct advanced research in the studies of Chinese language and literature, Chinese history, or translation, perhaps in anticipation of graduate school. It is open only to majors in their final year of studies who are expected to have prior knowledge in the subject they wish to research in. There is no formal lecture but students who undertake this course are expected to meet regularly with their tutor as well as to attend conferences and seminars organized by the School of Chinese.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Capstone experience courses

CHIN4101. Topical research in Chinese language and literature (6 credits)

This is a capstone course intended to be offered to the Chinese language and literature majors in their fourth year of studies. It focuses on an integration and application of knowledge and skills that students have acquired in their earlier years of studies. There is no formal lecture or tutorial but students are required to undertake and complete a topical research in the field of Chinese language and literature under the supervision of their advisers.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHINESE HISTORY AND CULTURE

Prerequisite course: any course with a prefix CHIN12XX.

Introductory courses

CHIN1201. Topical studies of Chinese history (6 credits)

The course explores a set of interrelated topics on several major aspects in pre-modern Chinese history, including politics, society, thought, and religion. It provides students with comprehensive knowledge of the key institutions, events, and figures within a broader historical context. Through in-depth analysis and discussion, fundamental methods in reading and criticism of different types of historical sources will also be introduced. In addition, the course goes beyond the limits of mainstream historiography and leads students to examine some important non-Chinese factors that have contributed to the transformation of Chinese society over time.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1202. Introduction to the study of Chinese history (6 credits)

This is a foundation course in the development of Chinese history and historiography.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1203. Chinese history and culture in the twentieth century (6 credits)

The course gives a brief survey of the transformation and reformation of Chinese history and examines the major cultural changes since 1900.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1205. Chinese history: a general survey (6 credits)

This course introduces Chinese political, social, and economic history from early times to the present century. Its purpose is to enlighten students about the development of autarchy by the imperial dynasties ruling China and to explore the methods of rule and the development of the education system that were to produce despotism in China. Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1206. Introduction to Chinese thought (6 credits)

This course provides a broad overview of traditional Chinese thought.  The emphasis will be on the teachings of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism, but other schools of thought such as Mohism and Legalism will also be taught.  Students will be introduced to the foundations of Chinese thought and will critically analyze its essential features. The relevance of traditional Chinese thought to the modern world will also be discussed.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1207. Traditional Chinese culture (6 credits)

This course introduces the general characteristics of traditional Chinese culture giving special emphasis to the theory that man, being an integral part of nature, is in harmony with nature. It also explores some important aspects of traditional Chinese culture including science and technology in ancient China, the leisure activities of Chinese intellectuals, and the influence of Buddhism and Christianity on Chinese culture.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1211. Economic and social development in China (6 credits)

Agriculture is important to the economic and social development of Imperial China and a decline in agricultural growth and its land policies may be regarded detrimental to the social and economic stability in China.  However, a number of other factors are closely related to these changes. Among them are the increase of domestic and international trading activities on silk, tea, keramic, and porcelain starting from the 5th century onwards.  Besides, the rise of light industries, which is largely underestimated by historians, also contributed to the growth of economy in Imperial China. The purpose of this course is to study the various forces leading to the social and economic changes in China and the effects of these changes.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1212. History of imperial China (6 credits)

This is an introductory course for students to have a fundamental knowledge in traditional Chinese history. The course will give a brief account of the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties and the political crises that are cataclysmic to the empires. It covers the period from ancient to late Imperial China. The main theme will focus on the characteristic portrayals of Chinese emperors as well as the political influences of eunuchs, empresses, and their family members, etc.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1213. Folklore and modern Chinese culture (6 credits)

This course explores a set of prominent aspects in Chinese folklore, including myths, folktales, folk songs, folk performances and arts, folk architectures, folk rituals, and festivals, which have in many ways affected modern Chinese culture and social life. It introduces major theories in folklore, literature, and cultural criticism to help students reflect on the essential features of Chinese folk culture and its persistence through the eventful social and political transformations of China during the 20th century. As part of experiential learning, students will also participate in site visits (folk art museums, operas, siheyuan houses, and temple fairs, etc.) to gain direct experience of traditional and modern Chinese folk culture.

This is a two-week intensive course offered in collaboration with the Department of Chinese Language and Literature at the Peking University. All lectures, seminars, and site visits are conducted in Beijing during the summer time. Priority will be given to students in Chinese and related majors or minors.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN1214. Chinese and western cultures: a comparative study (6 credits)

This course introduces a critical approach to the comparison of Chinese and Western traditional cultures in a wide variety of aspects, encompassing the ideas in relation to the origin of the universe, life and death, human nature, mythology, epistemology, politics, economic activities, ethics, social structure, relation of two sexes and law. The emphasis dwells on the system of values of the two distinct cultures, and to what extent environmental factors contribute to the psychological differences. A number of prominent issues raised by modern scholars will be addressed, including the absence of monotheism, scientific revolution and epic poetry in historical China. The course discusses in particular the heated and acrimonious debates on Chinese and Western civilizations in the New Culture Movement as well as during the 1960s in Taiwan. In view of the rapid globalization in the contemporary world, students are encouraged to reflect on concepts like multiculturalism and cultural relativism, and the possible forms of intercultural dialogues.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2231. Religious Daoism and popular religions in China (6 credits)

This course gives an overview of the historical development of religious Daoism and Chinese popular religions and examines the religious practice of Taoist worship and its cultural significance in China from the early medieval times to the present.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2241. History of Chinese civilization (6 credits)

This course examines the development of the concept of Chinese culture in relation to the historical interactions between the Han ethnicity and its neighboring ethnic groups. Through the examination of such topics as food, game, clothing, philology, and literature, students will be asked to consider the influence of cultural exchange on China’s changing political environment from dynasty to dynasty, as well as to address the question of whether such influences are unilateral (from China proper to its neighbors) or bilateral.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Advanced courses

CHIN2221. History of the Qin and Han periods (6 credits)

This course explores important issues reflecting the most significant changes in different aspects (political, institutional, social, and intellectual, etc.) during the Qin and Han periods. Students are encouraged to think critically on prevailing views over these issues and are challenged to develop their own observations and judgments by consulting relevant primary sources.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2222. History of the Wei, Jin and the Northern-and-Southern periods (6 credits)

The Wei, Jin, and the Northern-and-Southern Dynasties are often considered a period of disorder and fragmentation. However, cultural pluralism is a prevailing characteristic of this period. This course aims to explore the social, political, intellectual, and institutional organizations of the time and to trace the fluctuating dynamics of these complex and often puzzling interrelationships.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2223. History of the Sui and Tang periods (6 credits)

This course aims at investigating the shifting political environment and changes in cultural ideologies during the Sui and the Tang Dynasty.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2224. History of the Song and Yuan periods (6 credits)

This course deals with the dynastic histories of China from the tenth century to the fourteenth century.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2225. History of the Ming period (6 credits)

This course explores important issues reflecting the most significant changes in different aspects (political, institutional, social, and intellectual, etc.) during the Ming period. Students are encouraged to think critically on prevailing views over these issues and are challenged to develop their own observations and judgments by consulting relevant sources in Ming history.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2226. History of the Qing period (6 credits)

This course deals with the dynastic history of China from the seventeenth century to the twentieth century.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2233. History of the Chinese legal system (6 credits)

This course examines the main features and development of the legal systems from ancient time to the present in China.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2234. History of Chinese political institutions (6 credits)

This course examines the main features and the development of political institutions from ancient time to the present in China.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2235. Sources and methodology (6 credits)

This course intends to provide a thorough training in research methodology related to the study of Chinese history.  The ideas of noted ancient and contemporary Chinese historians will be drawn on.  Particular emphasis is placed on the use of reference works and information search through internet.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2243. History of Chinese science and civilization (6 credits)

This course aims to investigate the importance of Chinese scientific thought and culture from the pre-Qin period to the early twentieth century.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2245. Examination systems in Chinese history (6 credits)

This course examines the theories and means of selecting men of talent, as well as the development of the examination systems in China.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2246. Historical writings: texts and styles (6 credits)

This course aims to lead students to develop an in-depth understanding of some of the most fundamentally important texts in traditional Chinese historical writings.  One or more of the following will be selected for close study in each semester:

(i)Shiji.

(ii)Hanshu.

(iii)Hou Hanshu.

(iv)Sanguozhi.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2247. Local histories (fangzhi) and genealogical records (zupu) (6 credits)

This course examines the general characteristics and the compilation problems of local histories (fangzhi) and genealogical records (zupu) in pre-twentieth century China.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2251. Chinese philosophy I: Confucianism (6 credits)

This course examines the major philosophical texts of the Confucian tradition, particularly those of the pre-Qin period like the Analects, the Mengzi, and the Xunzi. The key questions and ideas of Confucianism will be discussed and analyzed so that students can appreciate not only the common concerns and shared ideas of Confucianism but also different responses to similar questions. Students will also be encouraged to reflect critically on the validity and significance of Confucian thought.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2252. Chinese philosophy II: Daoism (6 credits)

This course studies the major philosophical texts of the Daoist tradition, with a focus on the Dao De Jing and the Zhuangzi. Through a detailed exploration of the original texts, students will be led to appreciate and evaluate the metaphysical, ethical, social, and political ideas of Laozi and Zhuangzi. Students will also be encouraged to reflect critically on the contemporary relevance of the Daoist thought.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2253. Chinese philosophy III: Buddhism (6 credits)

This course examines the main streams of Indian Buddhist thought and their development in China. Students will be introduced to the basic tenets of Buddhism, especially those of the original Buddhism. The major schools of Mahayana Buddhism and their influence on Chinese Buddhism will be examined. The three major schools of Chinese Buddhism, Tiantai, Huayan, and Chan, will be studied in more details to help students gain a firm understanding of Chinese Buddhist philosophy.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2254. Christianity and Chinese culture (6 credits)

The course presents a historical survey on the spread of Christianity in China from the seventh century to the present day. It analyzes the multi-faceted impacts of Christianity and Western culture on Chinese society. Special attention will be paid to the diversified evangelical strategies adopted by missionaries in China, as well as layers of reactions from native (or indigenized) religions. By looking at the complex role of Christianity in both global and Chinese contexts, the course offers students a refreshing angle to better understand the dynamics of Chinese religious and cultural life over time.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2255. Chinese intellectual history (Part I) (6 credits)

This course deals with the main intellectual trends in China from the Qin-Han to the Sui-Tang period.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2256. Chinese intellectual history (Part II) (6 credits)

This course deals with the main intellectual trends in China from the Song period to the Qing period.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2259. History of Chinese historiography (6 credits)

This course explores some important issues of historical writing and historiography in traditional China with reference to the development of historical writing, the organization of historiography institutes, and the influence of emperors on historiography.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2264. Chinese eroticism (6 credits)

This course examines the rise of eroticism in traditional China. It aims to account for the rapid growth of eroticism in China.  Through an analysis of classic texts and drawings, arts and culture in different periods, students can gain insights into the development of sexual inequality and the change of female status in traditional China.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2268. History of China-West cultural exchanges (6 credits)

This course explores China’s encounters with the West from the seventh century to the early twentieth century. It presents a series of case studies on Sino-Western exchanges in the cultural domain. Major topics will be discussed through an interdisciplinary approach to bring together several fields in religion, philosophy, ethics, arts, and sciences. The course also offers a cross-cultural perspective that goes beyond the limitations of traditional Euro-centric and/or China-centered views.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2269. History of the Ming-Qing transition (6 credits)

This course will give an in-depth discussion on the historical arena relating to the development of traditional Chinese culture during the period of the Ming-Qing transition. It deals with the history of the Ming-Qing dynastic change in seventeenth-century China, focusing on the political, socio-economic, and cultural changes as well as the impact these had on the mentality of the Ming-Qing literati and on Chinese thought more generally.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2272. School education in Chinese history (6 credits)

This course examines the main features and development of school education from ancient time to the present in China. Special emphasis will be on its role for nurturing men of talent in Chinese history.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2273. Socio-economic history of China (6 credits)

Agriculture played a more predominant role than mercantile activities in ancient China especially in times of war and famine. Merchants used to be important supporters for government in economic declines but they were at the lowest rank of the traditional caste system and neglected by intellectuals who largely occupied the upper and the ruling class. Through an investigation of the social and economic developments of imperial and modern China, this course helps to explore the dynamics of socio-economic factors in shaping the transformation of the country.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2274. History of material culture (6 credits)

This course is a study of human evolution and cultural history from ancient to modern China. It covers topics which vary from a general introduction of archaeology and social anthropology to an orientation of cultural geography that gives rise to a variety of cultural differences in the appreciation of food, clothing, and architecture. Through an intensive study of the basic necessities of traditional living and narration on folklore, it examines the interchange of material culture between various ethnic groups in China and between East and West.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2275. The culture of flower in China (6 credits)

This course provides an overview of flower culture in China. The characteristics of flowers in various cultural aspects will be examined.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2276. Religions on the Silk Road in ancient times (6 credits)

This course examines the major features and developments of the prominent religions on the Silk Road from remote antiquity down to the Tang Dynasty, including nature worship, shamanism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism. The Silk Road connected most of the important civilizations of Eurasia and constituted essentially the intersection point of the religions from different areas. What attracts our attention in particular is that most of these religions were indigenized and changed into new forms in this region. Needless to say, the cultural legacy of the religions on the Silk Road is incredibly immense and can be seen in the luxurious and splendid Dunhuang treasures, which comprise a wide variety of grottos, statues, murals, manuscripts, and so on. This prompted the emergence of the flourishing Dunhuang research throughout the twentieth century. The study of the religions on the Silk Road not only concerns a deeper understanding of the doctrines of varied religions worthy of comparison, but also opens the door to us of the crowning spectacle of the cultural exchange especially among China, India, Central Asia and Western Asia in ancient times.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2277. Islam and Chinese culture (6 credits)

This course presents a historical survey on the dissemination of Islam in China from the Tang Dynasty down to the present day, and explores in detail the interaction of Islam and Chinese culture. An enhanced emphasis will rest on a group of the Chinese Muslim scholars (or huiru回儒) who rose to prominence during the Ming-Qing Dynasties. Chinese Muslim scholars resembled Christians or Jesuits in China in the sense that they also demonstrated a continuous effort to harmonize Islamic and Confucian cultures, writing a substantial number of works on Islam and translating Arabic Qur’an into Chinese. But what makes a striking difference between the two is that Muslims in China did not actively promulgate their religion to the Han Chinese, and neither did they seek to attack Neo-Confucianism or Buddhism for the purpose of justifying the supremacy of their beliefs. The Rites Controversy in Catholicism, therefore, finds no parallel among the Muslims in China. To summarize, it is widely recognized that the Muslims have in fact exercised considerable influence in the overall context of Chinese history in terms of religious culture, economic activities and scientific accomplishments.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2278. Travel and economic development in Chinese history (6 credits)

Travel is an important living activity of human beings. It is closely related to the development of the economy. This course examines the main features of travel and economic development in Chinese history. It aims to provide students an in-depth understanding on the relationship between living culture and economic changes in Chinese history.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2279. Neo-Confucianism in Song-Ming periods and contemporary religions and ethics (6 credits)

This course provides an overview of the development of Neo-Confucianism in Song and Ming dynasties, and concurrently encourages students to reflect on and compare the teachings of Neo-Confucianists concerning metaphysics and morality in conjunction with the prevalent forms of religions and ethics in the present day. The emphasis is therefore particularly placed on the analysis of the religious as well as ethical values of Neo-Confucianism in modern perspective, and the discussions of some Western academics and contemporary Neo-Confucianists will be incorporated accordingly. The course also discusses the reasons why Neo-Confucianism was able to have reigned in the Chinese intellectual scene for a prolonged period of some 700 years, and explains how it is pivotal in shaping the thoughts of Chinese scholars for centuries.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN3401. Dissertation (12 credits)

The purpose of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to conduct advanced research in the studies of Chinese language and literature, Chinese history, or translation, perhaps in anticipation of graduate school. It is open only to majors in their final year of studies who are expected to have prior knowledge in the subject they wish to research in. There is no formal lecture but students who undertake this course are expected to meet regularly with their tutor as well as to attend conferences and seminars organized by the School of Chinese.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Capstone experience course

CHIN3221. Thematic study in Chinese history and culture (6 credits)

This is a capstone course intended for students majoring in Chinese history and culture programme. The purpose of the course is to provide students with an opportunity to conduct advanced research, typically investigating a major theme in Chinese history and culture. It is open only to students in their third or final year of studies, who are expected to have prior knowledge in the subject they wish to research in. There is no formal lecture but students who undertake this course are expected to meet regularly with their tutor.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHINESE STUDIES

This is a combination of the above two programmes:Chinese language and literature as well asChinese history and culture. In fulfilling the credit requirements for majors and minors, students should choose:

i) at least an introductory or advanced course from each of these two programmes concerned; and

ii) a prerequisite course, a capstone course in case of the major, and the remaining course components from either of these two programmes.

TRANSLATION

The following are the course components required for the major and the minor:

Major (72 credits)

  • Pre-requisite course: CHIN1311. Introduction to translation (6 credits)
  • Introductory courses including all List 1 courses (30 credits)
  • Advanced courses including all List 1 courses: (30 credits)
  • Capstone experience course: CHIN2320 Long translation project (6 credits)

Minor (36 credits)

  • Pre-requisite course: CHIN1311. Introduction to translation (6 credits)
  • Introductory courses in List 1 or 2: (12 credits)
  • Advanced courses in List 1 or 2: (18 credits)
  • No capstone experience course is required

Prerequisite course

Students intending to major in Translation must attain a grade C or above in the first-year prerequisite course CHIN1311.

CHIN1311. Introduction to translation (6 credits)

This is an introduction to the skills and theoretical issues of translation, with guided practice in translating material of daily usage. Coursework assessment will be based on written assignments.

Assessment: 50% coursework, 50% examination.

Introductory courses (List 1)

CHIN2336. Interpretation workshop I (6 credits)

This course introduces students to the basic skills required for the three modes of interpreting (consecutive, simultaneous, and sight translation). It enables students to acquire and develop note-taking skills for consecutive interpreting and learn about interpreters’ professional ethics. This course also provides students with a brief history of interpreting and an overview of different interpretation settings. Training will focus on sight translation and consecutive interpreting between English and Chinese. This is a workshop-based course supplemented by lectures.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2361. Translation workshop E-C (6 credits)

This seminar course is designed to develop students’ competency in conveying ideas in both Chinese and English through the studies of translation. Students will not only be taught to analyze the linguistic, stylistic, and cultural features of the source text, but also challenged to present innovative solutions for a variety of translation problems. The acquisition of and familiarization with various idiomatic expressions in both Chinese and English will be emphasized, with particular attention in English-Chinese translation.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2362. Translation workshop C-E (6 credits)

This seminar course is designed to develop students’ competency in conveying ideas in both Chinese and English through the studies of translation. Students will not only be taught to analyze the linguistic, stylistic, and cultural features of the source text, but also challenged to present innovative solutions for a variety of translation problems. The acquisition of and familiarization with various idiomatic expressions in both Chinese and English will be emphasized, with particular attention in Chinese-English translation. .

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Introductory courses (List 2)

CHIN2333. Culture and translation (6 credits)

This course focuses on the cross-cultural dimension of translation.  It examines the most complex cultural barriers faced by the translator – such as differences in the expression of emotions (for instance – love, anger, fear), codes of behavior (for instance intimacy, privacy, politeness), values and world views, notions of gender, aesthetic taste, humour, and forms of symbolism and metaphor.  These issues arising from translation practice will be discussed in light of current theories on culture and translation from multiple disciplines.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2352. Language contrast and translation I (6 credits)

This course will examine and compare the basic linguistic structures of Chinese and English, including phonology, morphology and syntax, and will apply such knowledge to the practice of translation.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2355. Translation criticism E-C (6 credits)

Selected literary E-C translations will be analyzed in terms of specific problems arising from the process of translation. This course is more concerned with understanding how translated texts work rather than value judgements, and seeks to define the translator’s method and purpose.

Assessment: 50% coursework, 50% examination.

Advanced course (List 1)

CHIN2354. Theories of translation studies (6 credits)

This course introduces major theories in translation studies. By studying the ongoing theoretical debate in the field of translation, students will acquire a theoretical and methodological knowledge indispensable for evaluating and practicing translation.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Advanced courses (List 2)

CHIN2331. Choice of words in translation (6 credits)

This course takes a new semantic approach to the analysis of different types of word meaning in a text.  It addresses some key issues of a functional grammar pertaining to translation studies in Hong Kong and it is specially planned for students who aspire to carve out for themselves a career in administration, publishing, advertising and journalism.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2332. Translation in Hong Kong society (6 credits)

Translators’ work demands specialised knowledge of the ways translation functions in specific social contexts.  The principal concern of this course is the practical information about the various circumstances in which translation serves its purpose as a communicative activity, either in the Government or in the private sector.  This course will be assessed on the basis of a written seminar paper presented orally and participation in discussion.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2339. Translation for administration and business (6 credits)

This course examines the role of translation in Hong Kong’s public administration procedures and business activities and how it is used for local and international communication.  Students will practise translating papers related to negotiation, administration and the law arising from such contexts, and explore suitable translation techniques in the process.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2340. Film translation workshop (6 credits)

Film-making today is becoming increasingly international, rendering translation almost indispensable to the industry.  Translating films for dubbing and subtitling requires special skills distinct from those outside the field.  This course concentrates on such skills, emphasizing audio-visual awareness and cinematic elements such as drama, dialogue, vernacular, and pacing.  Critical theories on media and on cultural production and consumption will be introduced.  Students learn through group projects, the hands-on translation of feature films, and critiques of film translation.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2341. Translating writings on art (6 credits)

This course introduces students to the skills of translating within the field of Chinese and western art history, art appreciation and art criticism.  Chinese and English writings on art will be studied, and textual analysis and translation strategies concentrating on semantic and communicative aspects will be discussed.  Through the viewing of artworks and practice in sight translation and written translation, students will acquire bilingual vocabulary and linguistic expressions for describing a range of artworks and art genres in specific socio-historical, cultural and aesthetic contexts.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2342. Interpretation workshop II (6 credits)

This course prepares students for the pursuit of a career in interpreting. Students will be provided with intensive training in interpreting on a variety of topics and taught the improvisation skills in interpreting. This course also provides training in the essential skills and techniques for simultaneous interpreting, including shadowing, rephrasing, abstraction and the cultivation of split attention. This is a workshop-based course supplemented by lectures.

Prerequisite: CHIN2336. Interpretation Workshop I

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2343. Legal interpreting (6 credits)

This course provides an overview of the legal system of Hong Kong and familiarises students with trial procedures, characteristics of legal English, common terms pertaining to trial proceedings, as well as principles and protocols associated with interpreting in the judicial system. Students will practise sight-translating of legal texts and other court-related documents, and interpreting―consecutively or simultaneously as appropriate―courtroom speeches, including witness testimony, submissions by counsel, jury instructions and court judgments. This is a workshop-based course supplemented by lectures and a court visit to observe court interpreters at work.

Prerequisite: CHIN2342. Interpretation Workshop II

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2344. Short stories: East and West (6 credits)

This course aims to introduce students to the fundamentals of short story composition and the techniques that are involved in their translation.  It also aims to encourage them to pay close attention to the unique narrative techniques involved in the composition of short stories in both Chinese and English, and to encourage them to explore ways of re-creating such expositions in their translations.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2345. Syntax-based translation (6 credits)

This is an interdisciplinary, Linguistics-Translation crossover course offered to third year students majoring in Translation, Linguistics, and Law. As its course title suggests, it aims to help students acquire two types of skills: (i) to analyze highly complex sentence structures in English and Chinese; (ii) to translate legal documents from English into Chinese, and vice versa.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2346. From page to stage: A workshop on drama adaptation and translation (6 credits)

The adaptation of literary classics into staged productions can be an extremely rewarding pedagogic exercise.  They not only demand from students an in-depth reading of the original text, but also writing and analytical skills, an understanding of the basics of drama performance, as well as familiarity with the principles of translation.  Throughout this course, students will not only be trained in the above areas, but by collaborating with Eduarts Classic Theatre, they will be given the valuable opportunity to become involved in an actual production of a literary classic.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2347. World literature and translation (6 credits)

What is world literature? How does it relate to Chinese literature? How have literary texts responded to the questions of world literature, or integrated these questions into themselves? And how does translation fit into the discussion, either in understanding the role translation plays in the development of world literature, or in figuring out how we should translate with world literature in mind? Through a series of primary readings of poetry and fiction written in Chinese and other languages, this course will aim both to expose students to a broad range of significant works of world literature and to deepen students’ understanding of literature in global circulation. Readings (in Chinese and English) may include Bei Dao, Zhai Yongming, Xi Chuan, Yu Xiang, Anna Akhmatova, Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, Franz Kafka, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Karl Marx, Wang Wei, Du Fu, Wu Cheng’en, William Faulkner, Gabriel Gabriel García Márquez, Toni Morrison, Mo Yan, Italo Calvino, Dung Kai-cheung, Xi Xi (Sai Sai), and others.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2348. Bilingual studies in media and popular culture (6 credits)

The course introduces mass media and popular culture in the context of bilingualism and seeks to deepen students’ understanding of translation as a cross-cultural dialogue. Discussions will focus on a wide range of popular genres, including film, television, advertisement, magazines, pop music and internet culture, in the Chinese-speaking world. Through critical readings of the bilingual texts, cultural issues such as national and gender identities, ideology, globalization and the global circulation of images and imaginary, and the dynamics between cultural production, media technology, and political discourses will also be explored.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2351. Translation criticism C-E (6 credtis)

Selected literary C-E translations will be analyzed in terms of specific problems arising from the process of translation. This course is more concerned with understanding how translated texts work rather than value judgements, and seeks to define the translator’s method and purpose.

Assessment: 50% coursework, 50% examination.

CHIN2356. Language contrast and translation II (6 credits)

This course includes a contrastive study of the Chinese and English languages, and examines their language styles for special purposes, the emphasis being on the study of rhetoric both as a problem of translation and as a part of the language skills essential to translators.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN2357. Communication in written translation (6 credits)

This course introduces students to functional approaches to written translation, with special emphasis on text-type theory. It trains students to systematically identify the type and function of written texts across various genres, and to develop translation strategies in line with the communicative intent of these texts. Through seminar discussions, students will develop a critical awareness of the dynamic relation between linguistic choices in translation and textual communication across languages and cultures.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN3311. Translation and sinology (6 credits)

The purpose of this course is twofold – to provide an introduction on the history and development of sinology and to consider the specialized translation techniques involved in research in this field. Throughout the course, students will not only be asked to comparatively examine a variety of translated Chinese texts of different natures, ranging from such philosophical texts as the translation of Analects by James Legge and D. C. Lau to classical poetry by Xu Yuanzhong, David Hinton, and Arthur Cooper, and discuss their pros and cons, but also to analytically study a number of scholarly articles written in English that span both the literary and historical. Taught mostly in English but supplemented by Chinese, this course aims to satisfy students’ intellectual curiosity in this field and at the same time engage them at a higher level of academic research.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

CHIN3401. Dissertation (12 credits)

The purpose of this course is to provide students with an opportunity to conduct advanced research in the studies of Chinese language and literature, Chinese history, or translation, perhaps in anticipation of graduate school. It is open only to majors in their final year of studies who are expected to have prior knowledge in the subject they wish to research in. There is no formal lecture but students who undertake this course are expected to meet regularly with their tutor as well as to attend conferences and seminars organized by the School of Chinese.

Assessment: 100% coursework.

Capstone experience course

CHIN2320. Long translation (6 credits)

The Long Translation project is an important part of the Translation degree.  Its commencement is as early as the summer vacation between Years Three and Four when students are expected to find and decide on the texts for their translation.  Close study of the chosen texts on the part of the students should occur in the vacation.  From the beginning of the Forth Year to about the end of March of the graduation year, the actual translation will be done by the student under the supervision of a teacher, in each case assigned by the teachers of Translation.  The length of the translation should be about twenty pages; the nature of the writing, as literary or practical as the individual student prefers.

Assessment: 100% coursework.