PLEASE NOTE THAT THE FOLLOWING SEMINAR WILL BE CANCELLED!
School of Chinese Seminar
The Discourse on Gender in the Mancheng Tombs in Second-Century BCE China
施傑先生 Mr. Jie SHI
芝加哥大學藝術歷史系Department of Art History, University of Chicago
Date: Wednesday, February 22, 2017
Time: 4:30-5:30 pm
Venue: Room 730, Run Run Shaw Tower, Centennial Campus
講座摘要 性別認同是西漢（西元前206年 – 西元前8年）社會和家庭研究中最具爭議的問題之一。傳統歷史文獻（如《史記》、《漢書》）中零星的敘事常常彼此齟齬。在一個故事中，丈夫和妻子平等無差；在另一個故事中，則貴賤有別。而考古新出土的物質文化材料使我們可以完整地認識這個問題。本文論證：位於河北滿城的西漢中山靖王劉勝（卒於西元前113年）及王后竇綰（卒於約西元前109年）兩座彼此平行的墓葬全面體現了夫妻之間既平等又有等級的複雜微妙的有機關係。本文參考漢代文獻記載，仔細比較墓室的建築設計、隨葬品的類型和分佈，以及對身體的處理。討論了四個主要問題：（1）對男性和女性身體的不同處理方式強調了兩性之間身理差異之重要性; （2）夫婦的墓葬建築和隨葬品之間互為鏡像的關係反映了兩性間的平等概念;（3）夫婦墓在隨葬品上的整體等級差異表明了男性的優越; （4）妻子通過墓中的政治象徵和宗教意象維持她的與眾不同和權力。本文為研究西漢和中國早期帝國時代性別、家庭和權力等社會問題提供了一個新的物質視覺文化的視角。
Abstract Gender identity was among the most controversial issues of the society and family in Western Han (206 BCE – 8 CE). In one historical episode a husband and a wife were equal, and in another, unequal. This paper argues that the twin tombs of Prince Liu Sheng (d. 113 BCE) and his wife, Dou Wan (d. ca. 109 BCE), comprehensively embody such a complex and nuanced relationship between a couple, both equal and hierarchical. In doing so, in light of contemporary literary accounts, this paper closely compares the architectural designs, types and distributions of burial objects, and body treatments in the tombs. Four major problems are discussed: (1) the different treatments of the male and female bodies emphasize the importance of maintaining gender distinction between the couple; (2) the mutual mirroring between the couple’s funerary architecture and burial objects reflects the notion of equality; (3) the overall hierarchy in material contents between the couple’s tombs demonstrates male superiority; (4) the wife maintains her distinction and power through political symbolism and religious imagery. This paper provides a material perspective on the social history of gender and complicated relationship of husband and wife as envisioned and practiced in Western Han and early imperial China.
About the Speaker Expecting his PhD at University of Chicago in June 2017, Jie Shi is interested in ancient Chinese intellectual history, particularly in the visual and material perspective, and in the interaction between text and image. He has published over a dozen articles and book chapters, both in English and Chinese, and his most recent works have appeared in such journals as Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, T’oung Pao, Journal of American Oriental Society, Early China, and Monumenta Serica. He has just completed a book-length manuscript titled Modeling Peace: Royal Tombs and Political Wisdom in Early China.
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